Tropics are the most biodiverse ecosystem in the world. The Neotropics, the tropical areas located in the American continent, encompass several developing countries, nations which have not experienced a

Tropical islands are unique and valuable ecosystems characterized by high levels of endemism. In Panama, multiple groups of islands form important biodiversity and endemism hotspots, including the Pearl Islands archipelago, located around 48

Plain-colored Tanager Tangara inornata Photo by Jonathan Slifkin One of the most common sights from the observation deck at the Canopy Tower is the Plain-colored Tanager. True to its name it is mostly

Wing-banded Antbird Myrmornis torquata Photo by Tyler Ficker The rainforests of eastern Panama are perhaps the most important stronghold of the rare and distinctive Wing-banded Antbird. These antbirds can be recognized by their

Veraguan Mango Anthracothorax veraguensis Photo by Danilo Rodriguez Jr. Named for the Panamanian province of Veraguas, the Veraguan Mango was long considered to be strictly endemic to Panama but in recent years has

Swainson’s Hawk Buteo swainsoni Photo by Jonathan Slifkin. Every October and November, and again in March and April, nearly every Swainson’s Hawk in the world traverses the isthmus of Panama, on its way

Ocellated Antbird Phaenostictus mcleannani Photo by Doug Weschler   A flashy, most-desired member of the antbird family (Thamnophilidae), the Ocellated Antbird is a denizen of the understory of lowland rainforest, where it is

Rufous-vented Ground-CuckooNeomorphus geoffroyi Photo by Danilo Rodríguez Jr. The Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo is a beautiful but infrequently encountered bird. Like the other four species of ground-cuckoo in its genus, it is renowned for its

Rufous-crested CoquetteLophornis delattrei Photo by Carlos Bethancourt   Even within the charismatic hummingbird family (Trochilidae), the tiny, rare, ornately plumaged Rufous-crested Coquette is a standout birders’ favorite. The male Rufous-crested Coquette is most easily

Gray-headed Chachalaca Ortalis cinereiceps Photo by Jonathan Slifkin   Gray-headed Chachalacas are usually a conspicuous presence, moving through the trees in flocks and delivering a chorus of loud, raucous calls. They are also